LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS – LENR or shortly speaking the infamous words “COLD USION” is a fascinating possibility proven by many experiments and contested by others, representing especially the mainstream theory of nuclear physics.
We all are too familiar by now with demonically explosive and devastating cousin of Cold Fusion – the HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS, which some time ago crazy people allowed to be used in nuclear plants. The consequences of these decisions are still and will continue to be felt by countless people, animals and plants in Europe, Asia and throughout the world.
The question I would like however to ask today is following:
Since by now countless experimental data show that LENR do indeed occur at ambient or room temperatures and so they are somewhat more natural if I may say so, than their hot and dangerous cousins, we could ask if this might be a quality that could be used in evolution of biological organisms?
If so this could be potentially critical in early stages of life evolution on earth but also elsewhere int he universe.
I am not going to explain here what LENR is because the material on these type of nuclear reactions is abundant in the internet and can be easily accessed by anybody. At the end of this post I will provide only a short video and few links on the subject.
Let’s think for a moment how living organisms could conduct and benefit from LENR ? Firstly, we must realize that for LENR to occur certain conditions must exist. Experiments suggest that they do require special cavities where eg. water molecules may interact with each other in some not well defined mechanism. working LENR systems do usually have cavities made of some inert, noble materials such as eg. palladium. Of course the basic substrate for LENR is hydrogen and the product – helium. In fact helium but also deuterium or even tritium would serve in any experimental set-up on bioLENR as indicators of these type of reaction.
Ok but where in the cell, which we do know today could we actually expect LENR to occur. This is somewhat hard and easy to answer. Hard because if living organisms do have the ability to conduct LENR then it must have been used a very long time ago, in fact billions of years ago and therefore if still existing today then only in fragmentary or very restricted fashion in regard to multicellular organisms, which are result of evolution past the environment where the ability to conduct LENR could have had been beneficial. We do not know what the architecture of such primordial cells could have been like.
It is also however somewhat easy to answer this question because our cells still do have remnants of past evolutionary history, which could be similar to those ancient cells with the ability to conduct LENR. It is possible that these remnants of prehistory, which do function today as adapted and specialized organelles, might still retain some ability to conduct LNER under very particular circumstances.
Before we have a quick look at the possible sites of LENR in the cells today, let us shortly examine the “why” would biological organisms need LENR at all? To answer this we must imagine the world as it was billions of years ago. We still do not know how it happened that Life originated in first instance. We can say however what conditions were necessary to come up with all building blocks of Life. Yet, the shift from organic but non-living matter to an organic living system is elusive. In fact LNER could have played a role here. Early Earth at the time when life was originating was a very different place than what we experience today. For the purpose of this topic suffice however to say that back than Earth was far more HOT in terms of physical temperature but also in terms of radioactivity. The HOT version of nuclear reactions was far more prominent than what it is today and therefore the overall radioactivity of environment must have been much higher. How in such environment Life that we know today could have originated? There must have been some mechanisms, which were able to “reduce” at least some of disruptive radioactive influence. The exact Life tuning conditions are probably very hard to be established and we might never actually find it out. They may also be different from spot to spot on one planet as well as between planets. Here let us say that in order for the first cells to successfully form and thrive the radioactive environment of primordial Earth must have been somehow neutralized at least partially. How was this possible?
There are two possibilities here:
- Life originated not in the organic soup as such but in porous rocks submerged in some organic soup-like environment. The porous rock (sponge-like) would have to contain very tiny cavities able to trap water molecules as well as other organic substances. Such cavities could have been rich in inert metals such as eg. palladium and sealed off by lipid proto-membranes
- Life originated in small pools of water with special molecular structure typical for EZ water (please see previous posts) and containing organic substances.
In both scenarios LENR would play vital role in “neutralizing” external radioactive environment and so lowering the deadly impact of it on newly forming Life. In order for this to happen all highly radioactive elements trapped in such primordial-life cavities whether made of rock or ez water (I explain it shortly) would undergo “transmutation” known to occur during LENR resulting in less radioactive or non-radioactive elements existing in direct vicinity of forming Life. If this process was occurring on a larger scale, it could have led to a formation of special Life Zones of reduced or no radioactivity in a landscape, which we could compare today to No Go Zone around exploded nuclear power plants. In the same time it was delivering constant heat to maintain enzymatic reactions progressing and securing such proto-cells from possible local freezing.
The reason why I think EZ Water could also be a way how Life could evolve is well explained in articles of Prof. Gerland Pollack from the Washington University (USA) who’s laboratory discovered this special gel-like form of water. Gel-like, negatively charged water has special architecture, which might be very important for LNER especially in living cells of today.
But where today LENR could be taking place in living organisms ?
Apart from some ancient microorganisms still living in or close to naturally radioactive spots on Earth our very own cells may contain organelles, which could still possess at least fragmentary ability to conduct LENR. One of these organelles are mitochondria. Formally mitochondria are considered ancient proto-organism (microorganism), which invaded higher cellular organisms. In my opinion it could have been just the opposite or if Life was originating according to my assumptions – our cells as they look today formed later around such proto-organisms with the ability to conduct LENR because these proto-mitochondria formed lower radioactivity zones around themselves – an attractive environment for a higher cellular functions to be located in.
As I have explained in previous posts mitochondria have special structure of two membranes with an inner membrane forming deep invaginations (cristae) into what is called mitochondrial matrix. These invaginations are parallel to each other and form two or three even distinct functional compartments: the matrix, the membrane and the inter-membrane space (see the picture below).
These three compartments form three functional zones, which are known as Krebs cycle or (Citric Acid Cycle – CAC) in matrix, oxidative respiratory chain on the inner membrane – cristae and hydrogen ion/proton storage for ATP production – inter-membrane space. These three zones however may also be involved in mitochondrial LENR. The main aim of oxidative respiration is to transfer electrons between enzymes of the respiratory chain located in the cristae onto the oxygen to form water. During this transport hydrogen ions are pumped across the inner membrane and stored in inter-membrane space only to return to matrix and so give gradient energy to make ATP used further in other parts of the cell as source of chemical energy.
As I stated at the beginning LENR do require cavity, water and hydrogen atoms. We also know that the higher pressure acting on hydrogen atoms the lower temperature is needed for two (or four) hydrogen atoms to fuse and make helium. In living systems it is likely that only two hydrogen atoms could undergo fusion in one even not four like this is the case in the Sun.
First cavity where two protons (hydrogen ions) could resonate and interact with each other in a living cell is in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria (particularly in the cristae). This is a very narrow cavity and if we imagine now that ez water could form inside mitochondrial matrix between two parallel cristae – we would add a possible resonating mechanism exerting pressure from both sides of the cristae on the cavity. In such scenario protons pumped by the respiratory chain fill the inter-membrane cavity space where they are being “muscled” by the pressure from ez water forming on two opposite sides of the cristae. This pressure mechanism could be of physical nature – ez water could constantly formed and decomposed or it could be of electrical nature since ez water carries high negative charge. In fact pumping protons out of the matrix would leave more negative charge inside the matrix and so likelihood of ez water being formed would be much higher too. We would have a system in which the more protons are being pumped to cristae cavity, the more ez water is being formed in the matrix between cristae and so the higher pressure is exerted on the cristae cavity and protons contained in it from both sides of the cristae invagination. If hydrogen ions supply is sufficient and ez water can efficiently form – a spontaneous LNER event may perhaps occur inside cristae cavity. If so such mechanism would provide for extra heat being generated inside the cells and of course helium being released.
To prove this and other possible bioLNER events one would have to build an experimental set-up able to detect helium being released from cells exposed for instance to infrared light known to promote the formation of ez water (Prof. Pollack research).
The second (though less likely) cavity where protons could interact with each other inside mitochondria is formed by ez water directly. Prof. Pollack has shown that ez water forms special lattice of hexagonal structure. These hexagons composed of H3O2 molecules have central cavity. The lattice can also possibly self-resonate due to the charge by making lateral shifts. If we could imagine chain of protons trapped inside such left-2-right oscillating cavity – a LENR event could perhaps take place directly indie water only due to its internal ez water, gel-like structure.
The cell contains also another organelle – peroxisome, where water might be split and hydrogen atoms may interact with each other. Sometimes this organelle contains special protein crystals which could perhaps fulfill the requirements of resonating cavity – a necessary condition for LENR. In case peroxisomes do not carry on LENR, they may probably provide additional source of protons for the cell.
Finally, we should also not forget that there is a vast network of cavities inside virtually every cell – the micro-tubule network. Through this network water contained in the cytoplasm may flow and perhaps also resonate to give-up hydrogen atoms, which then may fuse in LENR event giving up helium. Although, this seems possible yet in may opinion the best sites for bioLENR event inside cells are the mitochondria and possible also peroxisomes.
If these speculations are correct only a carefully conducted experiment may reveal. Today the environments is far less radioactive then in the past and therefore cells have no evolutionary pressure to keep LENR active. However, they may contain genetic information on this process especially if it was/is being assisted by some very specialized proteins (eg. proteins of the peroxisomal crystal or some other mitochondrial proteins, which may not be active under normal circumstances).
To conduct an experiment one would certainly need a very sensitive helium detection system, a method to activate cells by exposing them to more radioactive environment as well as a way to induce in them ez water by exposition to infrared light. It all is of course possible but are there any benefits from learning that indeed cells could preform LENR ?
If they do then certainly knowing this could facilitate search for life on other worlds of the solar and perhaps even extra-solar system. Furthermore, there might still be organisms alive today in endemic spots on Earth, which do carry on LENR at higher efficiency and if so they could be used to decontaminate or at least reduce radioactive pollution. There might be of course other uses even in medical field of bioLENR, which are now difficult to predict especially that we do not know if such events indeed do exist.
An experiment is needed…
PS. As always our aim is not to give answers but to cause thoughts and discussions. If you have any idea or comment, please feel free to post it. We welcome all constructive input as it contributes a bit more to our common development.
Remember, the more pressure is applied (resonating cavity) – the less heat is required to fuse two hydrogen atoms …